What strategies should the government implement to make the Indian economy strong and keep the growth constant?


Answer by Shubham Bansal:

Warning: This answer took me 4 long hours, a few dozens of articles on the Internet, a quick reference to all my previous answers and some from the better writers. So it is obviously a long one with 16 points! But you'll surely find something that will amaze you! I have even included a lot of blockquotes from the best sources. However watch out death from boredom.

Thanks for the A2A Dhakshitha Rao. I couldn't resist myself from answering about Narendra Modi, and the government of course.

Edit 1: I am grateful I found many related images, so you may just refer to them to understand more. And obviously to skip the boring text.

Edit 2: TL;DR version which was needed badly:
1. Stop subsiding wastefully
2. Interest rates
3. Disinvestment
4. Fiscal Plan
5. Infrastructure
6. Agriculture
7. Interlinking rivers
8. 5F formula
9. P4
10. Governance about outcomes not outlays!
11. Put 'life' in a 'file'
12. Making use of demographic advantage
13. Skill development & education
14. Jan Dhan Yojana
15. Make In India
16. Swacchh Bharat Abhiyan

Let's see India pre-Modi statwise.

India suffers from stagflation. Growth is 4-5%, half the level at the peak, inflation is 9% and rising , industrial production is declining and the public finances are a mess. Although the current-account deficit has narrowed to below 2% of GDP, it is flattered by a de facto ban on gold imports and could yet blow out to scary levels again.

-Quoted on Modi’s mission regarding India's economy in the pre-election period.

What went wrong? The raw inputs of growth—people and capital—have been deployed badly. The rates of savings and investment have dipped and their mix has deteriorated. High inflation has led households to buy gold, shifting money away from the banking system where it can be productively employed. And a mixture of bureaucracy, excessive leverage, incompetence and corruption has led private companies (whose spending tends to have the most bang per rupee) to halve their investments as a share of GDP. What has been invested has often been tangled in red tape and graft.

-Quoted on Modi’s mission about what went wrong with the Indian Economy.

What should do the government do?

1. Stop subsiding wastefully: All the schemes of public welfare end up in a few already rich pockets. Hence the government must review and assess all the subsidies. They burn a whole in the common man's pockets. The money should be directed more carefully, towards infrastructure and education. Water, fertilizer and power subsidies were like a thorn.

Remember this?
Amitabh Bachchan, Sachin Tendulkar, Aamir Khan are 'beneficiaries' of MGNREGA in Goa
It may have been proved wrong later, however I'm unaware.

BJP national treasurer Piyush Goyal says

"The hard reality is government money is required to be spent in more targeted areas. Subsidies must benefit the poor, not fuel the SUVs of the rich."

Source: business-standard

Source: in.reuter

2. Interest rates: Raghuram Rajan must carry on his tough stand on interest rates to control inflation. Interest rates affect inflation. When interest rates are increased, inflation decreases. That is because a higher interest rate will force people to save more than they borrow, hence lesser inflation.

See Balaji Viswanathan's answer to Is there a connection between bank interest rates and inflation rates? and all other greatly explained answers.

Source: ideasmakemarket

3. Disinvestment:

Source: business standard

4. Fiscal Plan:

The solution to India’s fiscal problem (it has not run a budget surplus since independence in 1947) is to expand the tax net. A proposed direct-tax code, and a goods-and-services tax (GST), should achieve this. With more revenue, the state can build more infrastructure: the experiment over the past decade of getting the private sector to do the heavy lifting has had mixed results. The GST also helps make India a single market by replacing a myriad of local levies. The bureaucracy needs to be reformed; Bimal Jalan, a former central-bank governor, says the number of ministries should be cut.

–Quoted on Modi’s mission about the fiscal policy.

"In the next two years, expect GST and DTC to be in place," says Kutumba Rao, finance expert with the Telegu Desam Party, a BJP ally. "With GST, the GDP will go up by at least 1.5 to two percentage points without any effort by the government, and the DTC will improve compliance."

– From Business Today.

Red tape interference and loss of taxes will always hurt the government and the country itself. There is no point complaining about the lack of development if you are the culprit yourself!

5. Infrastructure:

When we aim to match China and Japan, we must look forwards to the betterment of the most key aspect of a developed nation- energy.

Narendra Modi's recent agreeements and advances in the nuclear arena with Australia, Japan and the US signify his commitment to make India a good player in this dance for energy.
Cross country power grids with the SAARC and ASEAN fellows will greatly help us.
Also with Bhutan, his agreement is a plus for our hydroelectricity. Remember not even 2% hydro power is trapped from Bhutan. It will also help irrigation and flood control. Energy-hungry is the correct word for India. We must satisfy this growing little boy soon to see him become a robust man one day!

We must also look forward to a successful system of transportation if we are to make our mark on the world economic platform. Time is money. Hence the ambitious plans to invest in the semi-bullet trains.

Also solar energy and wind energy must be explored, but first comes the transition from thermal to nuclear energy. And yeah lesser people were killed during Fukushima nuclear disaster than those who die every day due to air pollution caused due to thermal power plants. Fukushima had a grand casualty total of zero!

He spoke at length on infrastructure – reviving shuttered power plants, modernizing railways, setting up gas grids and connecting India through optical fiber networks, but also combined that vision with proposals that will have a resonance with the aam aadmi and India’s farmers – building agro infrastructure, setting up mechanisms to monitor real time plantation and harvest of crops as well as courts to try hoarders and black marketers. Modi spoke also of building Brand India through 5 Ts – talent, tradition, trade, tourism & technology and said India’s demographic and democratic dividend along with these plans will set in motion the investment cycle and revive India’s stalled growth.

– Quoted Business Standard about Narendra Modi's economic plan's infrastructure aspect.

 Source: ET

6. Agriculture: Farmers have to be empowered.

  • New know-how has to be taught.
  • Vocational training has to be started along with new agricultural univ. and colleges.
  • All the schools and college labs must be thrown open for agricultural experiments during the summer vacations.
  • Radio must broadcast tips related to agriculture.
  • Soil testing laboratories must be easy to access. Also easy accessibility to agricultural experts must be ensured.
  • Mr Modi also plans to separate the procurement, storage and distribution departments of the Food Corporation of India to improve efficiency and procurement and distribution procedure.

If we can ensure all this, we'll not only be able to feed us and export more, but will contribute significantly to the environment whose positive effect will trickle down to all other spheres and will help us boost our economy.

7. Interlinking rivers:

Interlinking rivers is an idea that took shape in the Vajpayee era in 2002 – it seeks to link 14 Himalayan rivers in North India and 16 peninsular rivers in South India – but was put on the backburner after the Congress-led UPA came to power in 2004. "The idea has the potential to prevent floods and droughts, provide new sources of hydropower and irrigate millions of hectares of land," says Vinayak Chatterjee, Vice Chairman of Feedback Infra, a leading integrated infrastructure services company.

– Quoted on business today about the ambitious plan.

Imagine a country where people do not have to hold their hands up to the sky to pray for a shower. Was this our Bharat? Do we like it when states of our country fight for water? It's akin to two brothers fighting for the property and I feel like a helpless parent.

8. 5F formula

For the purpose of industrial development, Modi has cited the '5F' Formula – Farm to fibre; fibre to factory; factory to fashion; fashion to foreign.

This policy Modi said will help furthering the growth of textile sector in the economy. 'Nobody has a textile policy like us. It is based on five Fs. Farm to fibre; fibre to factory; factory to fashion; fashion to foreign,' said Modi.

-Economic Times.

This is very much required to curb the plight of the cotton cultivators and give the much needed impetus to the industry we always thrived at in the medieval age. Growing, manufacturing and export being done from the same place will make the farmers financially strong and will bring them into the financial mainstream.

9. P4

'If we want to implement good governance, we must look to P4 – people private public partnership,' Modi has said. 'We need to move from PPP to PPPP, People Public Private Partnership,' he opined.

According to Modi, people should be kept in the loop by the government. 'People should get a chance to speak before a government decision is taken. This will make people feel like they have had a role to play. Wherever possible we should take the consent fo people. This will speed up the pace of development,' Modi said.


Gone are the days when we just talked about public-private partnership. Add people to make it people-public-private partnership or fondly called as P4. We need the people to be involved in decision making and know what is happening. It will be a dream scenario. The confidence people lost in the Congress will come back with this.

Source: Home | www.narendramodi.in |           

10. Governance about outcomes not outlays!

In an attempt to distinguish between the two, Modi has said that while government means rules, governance means delivery. 'Government implies authority, governance means accountability,' Modi said.

Government is all about power, governance about empowerment, he added. Calling for decentralisation of power, he said the gap between people and administration was increasing.

Now I couldn't agree more. I have always been a fanboy of decentralization. "Less government, more governance" was NaMo's pet point during the elections campaigning which essentially means faster decision making, more accountability and more strength with able decision makers. This is what our economy needs right now!

Ministers and bureaucrats have been adviced to report at 9 AM, a thought hitherto unthinkable. Bureaucrats have been asked to function as Civil Sevants and not as the Queen of the Democracy. This is the single most step that will affect India as a whole. If implemented in letter and spirit, this will remove inefficiency and lack of will among the policy makers and implementors.

Source: veooz

11. Put 'life' in a 'file'.

Modi feels that the socio-economic impact of government schemes needs to be measured. This he said, will ensure that funds are being used effectively. 'We need to put 'life' in a 'file'. It isn't enough to put up facilities, it is equally important to improve the people's quality of life,' Modi said.

'The Sabarmati river front project gave the state carbon credits, improved the water table and reduced diseases in Ahmedabad. If we measure socio-economic benefits then it will improve our impact,' he substantiated.


Take MGNREGA as an example. It resulted in the poor quality roads being built in the villages again and again. No emphasis was given to healthcare or irrigation which are the burning points in a village. Similarly the authorities must keep a check on everything and must ensure that real benefits are reaching the people. Only money won't work, planning and will to improve life is the must.

12. Making use of demographic advantage

According to Modi, India is more powerful than China on two scores: demographic dividend and democracy.

'India is a young country. If we take advantage of the demographic dividend, we can change the face of the world,' he said. 'If we pay attention to skill development, then we can provide opportunities to our youth to become productive and creative… then we can do a lot of things,' Modi added.

-ET again.

NaMo mentioned this a few times in his Madison speech. The median age in India is around 26 years. We have a population that is very young as compared to Japan which is growing older by the day! If we pay more attention to skill development and meaningful training of the youth, we may see a long-lasting effect on the economy.

13. Skill development & education.

Modi said there was need to focus on employability in education. 'We have got the ability, that means we can do great work by means of skill development and vocational training,' he said.

According to Modi, development can be used to strengthen the country's economic structure. 'For example, the world needs teachers, nurses. We can develop the human resources and export teachers and nurses. We can add a new paradigm to economic development.'

– ET once again, they wrote all this brilliantly.

Opening new IITs, IIMs, AIIMS and other state funded collges and research centers will prepare us for tomorrow! The youth must not only have a degree but must add value producing capabilities into themselves and add wealth to the nation. Education is the only way forward. Most of the countries have skilled labour in the most menial jobs and hence perform greatly. The workers live a respected life in Scandinavian countries.

Source: wikipedia

14. Jan Dhan Yojana:

The program aims at creation of bank accounts with a 5000 Rs overdraft facility, a RuPay debit card and an insurance cover of 1 lacs. The scheme triggered opening of 1.5 crores bank accounts on the first day itself. This is a mega financial inclusion plan. Easier loans, lesser circulation of black money. India has 35% people with a bank account, lowest among the BRICS, as compared to 87% of the US and 95% of Canada.

Read Rohit Shinde's answer to : What are the pros and cons of the Indian Government's Jan Dhan Yojna?

Source: Niticentral

15. Make In India:

There's no denying that India, a country with demand, demographic dividends and democracy lagging in 134th place in the Ease of doing business Index is a heartbreaking scenario. To raise the standard of living, to make our country a major hub for industries and to embrace progress leaving behind our leftist leanings for good this is the right step ahead. There will be professional training in important sectors, more employment opportunities and the business houses will adopt a city to help in the creation of 100 smart cities.

Why did a majority of voters in Scotland reject independence from the UK? SeeBalaji Viswanathan's answer. Specifically the third point of What's Next?That pretty much sums it up. If India is to avoid being torn apart or internal stabbing, development, progress and growth is the only way forward.

I couldn't resist mentioning this again. India lies 134th in the ease of doing business index. What a great market of opportunities with extraordinary demands but govt. machinery just don't let anyone do their thing.

  • Make in India is a policy that combines incentives with easy handling of businesses and a faster redressal machinery. Only Business, NO harassment.
  • Skill endowment and job creation in 25 key industries.
  • Urging global investors to make India an industrial hub.
  • Raising FDI caps, red tape constricted in decision making.
  • Will help in achieving the target of 100 smart cities and affordable housing schemes.

Source: Breaking News from India, World, Business and Politics

Source: thehindu

16. Swacchh Bharat Abhiyan: Swacchh Bharat Abhiyan is not only about picking up the dry waste and posing for the cameras but it also includes solid waste management and waste water management, building new toilets and spreading awareness among the ignorant. We save our environment and boost tourism which in turn brings us the precious foreign reserves. Also we provide employment and opportunity to the related industries. With toilets will be accompanied a proper drainage system in the villages.

It is shameful that even after 67 years of independence we hear of rapes and exploitation for which lack of toilets is a big reason. Also the girl drop rate out of school is for the same reason. It will help in improving the life condition and literacy among the masses, especially girls.

Also this plan will help India cut down on the wasteful expenditure and the savings which are expected to be 6.4% of the GDP if the plan is 100% successful will surely help elsewhere.

Source: ndtv

I had to bring Bapu here so that we remember his vision, work harder to fulfill his dreams, his vision for our Bharat Maan. Can we give Bapu the India of his dreams by 2019? Let's start today!

Hence I wrote out my heart. Thanks for the read. If you made it till here without being bored to death I must pat you on the back 🙂

Have faith in the policies of the government. Have hopes and do your work well to contribute to nation-building.

If you found this helpful, You may also see:

Shubham Bansal's answer to How many policies and laws have changed in India since Narendra Modi became the PM? (435 upvotes )

Shubham Bansal's answer to What do you think of Modi's vision for India?

What is the potential impact of this year's budget on the long-term prospects of India's economy?

What strategies should the government implement to make the Indian economy strong and keep the growth constant?


Why can’t India manufacture cheaper products as compared to the Chinese?

economy : Why-cant-India-manufacture-cheaper-products-as-compared-to-the-Chinese

Answer by Prasanna Venkatachari:

China has been able to produce and sell cheaper products than most other countries , not just India. However, let us see what are the key factors that enabled Chinese to produce and sell cheaper products.
1.  Cost Efficient Labour  The notion that China has the world’s lowest paid labour is only partly true. There are other countries like Srilanka , Vietnam whose labour wages are upto 30% lesser than China, but what makes the difference is the efficiency of the Labours. Infact in the last four years Chinese labour wages has been consistently increasing by 15% a year.
The increase in wages is equally matched by increase in productivity.
China’s productivity growth has been and remains far ahead of that of most other countries in the world. Between 1990 and 2010, China’s annualized average productivity growth rate was 2.8 percent, far greater than that of the United States and Japan (0.5 percent and 0.2 percent, respectively).

A Chinese factory making iPhones was able to rouse 8,000 workers from their dormitory and put them on the assembly line at midnight, according to the New York Times. Not the next day. Midnight. Nowhere else are such feats feasible.
2. Commendable supply chain  Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer. China's supply chain is sophisticated and flexible. China’s biggest advantage is their domestic availability of the most of the raw materials required to manufacture a given product (for eg. Electronic components).

3. Competitive Pricing  China can afford to price so competitively because it does not take on certain costs, such as R&D and product innovation. Two reasons for this, Firstly , Most of their manufacturing orders comes from abroad i.e only the developed idea need to be manufactured and secondly, the Lack of IPR(Intellectual Property Enforcement) meaning the products can be easily copied. When Honda launches a product any where in the world, China copies it without delay. Same is the case with many products in electronics as well.

4. Mass Productivity and Dumping The components or products going into production really are mass produced at an aggregate cost and China follows a strategy called dumping. Dumping is the act of a manufacturer in one country exporting a product to another country at a price that is either below the price it charges in its home market or is below its cost of production. The goal of "dumping" is to capture the market or destroy the competition , which China does so effectively*.

*Though there are many countries including The US have been imposing anti-dumping tariff on China.

5.  The controversial currency manipulation  The Yuan is manipulated and pegged undervalued to the US dollar. So the price quoted in US dollar will be cheaper than normal. The manipulation has affected the domestic price of the product and labour wages to a troubling level as It has been kept much lower than it should have been.

What India needs to do to catch up( Not just with the low cost products but overall manufacturing)

In Simple terms,

  • Encourage FDI, Relax rules, Encourage Indian entrepreneurs
  • Push disproportionate percentage of workforce in Agriculture into           manufacturing sector
  • Transformation of unskilled labours into skilled labours
  • Improve logistics and infrastructure and power efficiency
  • Improve overall export (currently 1.7% of world export is India’s)

I have also discussed these points elaborately here: Prasanna Venkatachari's answer to Would the 'Make in India' message of PM Modi excite global investors? What needs to be done to make it happen?

Why can't India manufacture cheaper products as compared to the Chinese?

What are some of the most awesome psychological facts?


Answer by Debidatta Dwibedi:

1. Inception (only sort of) or Incorporation of Reality in Dreams

You can alter someone's dreams as they are dreaming.

What the brain does, ever so often, is include stimuli happening in reality in whatever one is dreaming. Say you throw water on someone who is sleeping and she wakes up all of a sudden and narrates what she saw in her dreams. More often than not this gushing of water is incorporated elegantly in the dream. This served as inspiration for a sequence in Inception where  [1]

a sleeping Cobb is shoved into a full bath, and in the dream world water gushes into the windows of the building, waking him up

This happened in reality.

And caused this in his dream.

Freud had also mentioned this. Alfred Maury in Le sommeil et les rêves narrates how a bar falling on his neck while sleeping became a guillotine in his dream and he woke up suddenly. This was related by Freud in The Interpretation of Dreams.

Also sounds happening around us make their way into our dreams. Optimistically, you can think of introducing characters in dreams by saying some names while someone is sleeping. This is exactly what Berger set out to do.[2]

Berger (1963) assessed the effects of meaningful verbal stimuli on dreaming. These stimuli were the names of the subjects' friends (provided by the subjects) that when presented while the subjects were awake had elicited the largest galvanic skin responses (GSRs). Dream incorporation was judged to have taken place on about half of the occasions. Of the 48 dreams that were judged to have been affected by the stimuli there had been 31 incorporations on the basis of assonance alone – for instance, 'Gillian' had been voiced as 'Chilean', 'Jenny' as 'Jemmy', and 'Mike' as 'like'. Only on three occasions had the named individual actually appeared in the dream as themselves.

Anyone up for a little game of Inception?

2. Bystander effect

You might want to believe that if you are in an accident or emergency, you would have a greater chance of being rescued if you are in a crowded place. But countless experiments and incidents have proven exactly the opposite.The greater the number of observers, the less likely it is that one of them will help you. This is due to a phenomenon called Diffusion of responsibility whereby a person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present.

[image from Overcoming the Bystander Effect]

If you have ever worked in a group project in school.or college you probably have experienced this first-hand. There is almost always that one guy or girl who refuses to contribute to the project till the very end.

A darker example of this phenomenon is the group dynamics in a gang rape.[3]

These factors are diffusion of responsibility, deindividuation, and modeling, all of which can be applied to the dynamics of gang rape. Thus, no one individual in a gang rape believes that he is solely to blame for the victimization taking place.

This effect goes even deeper[4]

3. Cocktail party effect

Even in a noisy, crowded place if someone says your name, you can tune out other noises and focus on that voice. This effect is also true for other information that might be important to us. This effect changed the way psychologists thought about auditory input and attention.

Do we listen to everything first and then filtering takes place? Or filtering of supposedly useless input takes place even before we hear things?

This effect led to the concept of attention models which is important in psychology

[1] With 'Inception,' Chris Nolan's head games continue
[2] Experimental Modification of Dream Content by Meaningful Verbal Stimuli
[3]Gang Rape: A Psychological Perspective of Group Dynamics
[4]10 Notorious Cases of the Bystander Effect – Listverse

PS: It seems I am really late to this party. Most of the awesome psychological effects I know of have already been mentioned in many of the answers.

What are some of the most awesome psychological facts?

Does pan masala causes cancer?

Does pan masala causes cancer?
I want to know about pan masala with 0% tobacco such as Rajnigandha.
I know tobacco causes cancer due to presence of carcinogens

Answer by Sunil Bhatnagar:

Not only Tobacco but other components of Pan Masala are also carcinogenic. Ideally all Gutka and Pan Masalas, with or without tobacco, should be banned completely. Medical Associations are working hard against a powerful business and political lobby.

Gutka/ Pan Masala is a preparation of crushed areca nut (also called betel nut, supari,सुपारी ), tobacco,catechu (an extract of Acacia, keekar or babool कीकर / बबूल), paraffin, slaked lime and sweet or savory flavorings.

Because of adverse publicity tobacco is not being used in some brands.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) accept the scientific evidence that chewing betel/areca and acacia nut is carcinogenic to humans. The main carcinogenic factor is believed to be areca nut. A 2000 study found that areca-nut paan with and without tobacco increased oral cancer risk by 9.9 and 8.4 times, respectively.
[Paan without tobacco,an independent risk factor for oral cancer, International Journal of Cancer, Volume 86, Issue 1, pages 128–131, 1 April 2000]

Does pan masala causes cancer?

Which is the land of midnight sun?


Answer by Jai Parimi:

Land of the Midnight Sun refers to:

  • Any of the world's northern regions above the Arctic Circle, i.e. the Arctic.
  • Any of the world's southern regions below the Antarctic Circle, usually Antarctica.

What is Midnight sun?

  • The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
  • The opposite phenomenon, polar night, occurs in winter when the sun stays below the horizon throughout the day.
  • Around the summer solstice (approximately June 21 in the north and December 22 in the south) the sun is visible for the full 24 hours, given fair weather. The number of days per year with potential midnight sun increases the farther towards either pole one goes.
  • Although approximately defined by the polar circles, in practice the midnight sun can be seen as much as 90 km outside the polar circle.

What are the countries experiencing midnight sun?

  • No countries exist in Antarctic circle.
  • In Arctic circle, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada, US (in the clockwise order)

Thanks Ashok Bardhan for the A2A. 🙂

Which is the land of midnight sun?

In layman’s terms, what is a tax haven?


Answer by Prashant Thakur:

Tax Haven is a country where there are no taxes or most of the income is tax exemption. The country's economy is based on funds flow from outside. Thus , they create a legal framework under which bring money , incorporating business entities are very easy and without much regulation , specially on the source of income.

So, tax evaders , crooks , kings and unscrupulous businessmen, smugglers, drug cartels , corrupt politicians create trust or entity and park the money there . No question about identity of source and the beneficiary are major incentive. Very low taxation is Bonus.

If you would like to know more on tax haven country, a very good site is International Consortium of International Journalists

You can also watch
There are many other articles on Page on taxworry of thsi writer

In layman's terms, what is a tax haven?

Is the continental drift real?


Answer by Harshit Ladva:

What is Continental Drift theory ?

According to Wegener, all the continents formed a single continental mass and mega ocean surrounded the same. The super continent was named PANGAEA, which meant all earth. The mega-ocean was called
PANTHALASSA, meaning all water. He argued that, around 200 million years ago, the super continent, Pangaea, began to split. Pangaea first broke into two large continental masses as Laurasia and Gondwanaland forming the northern and southern components respectively. Subsequently, Laurasia and Gondwanaland continued to break into various smaller continents that exist today. A variety of evidence was offered in support of the continental drift.


1) The Matching of Continents (Jig-Saw-Fit)

The shorelines of Africa and South America facing each other have a remarkable and unmistakable match. It may be noted that a map produced using a computer programme to find the best fit of the Atlantic margin was presented by Bullard in 1964. It proved to be quite perfect. The match was tried at 1,000-fathom line instead of the present shoreline.
Observe the shape of the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. You will be surprised by the symmetry of the coastlines on either side of the ocean. No wonder, many scientists thought of this similarity and considered the possibility of the two Americas, Europe and Africa, to be once
joined together.

2) Rocks of Same Age Across the Oceans

The radiometric dating methods developed in the recent period have facilitated correlating the rock formation from different continents across
the vast ocean. The belt of ancient rocks of 2,000 million years from Brazil coast matches with those from western Africa. The earliest marine deposits along the coastline of South America and Africa are of the Jurassic age. This suggests that the ocean did not exist prior to that time.

3) Tillite

It is the sedimentary rock formed out of deposits of glaciers. The Gondawana system of sediments from India is known to have its
counter parts in six different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. At the base the system has thick tillite indicating extensive and
prolonged glaciation. Counter parts of this succession are found in Africa, Falkland Island, Madagascar, Antarctica and Australia besides
India. Overall resemblance of the Gondawana type sediments clearly demonstrates that these landmasses had remarkably similar histories.
The glacial tillite provides unambiguous evidence of palaeoclimates and also of drifting of continents.

4) Placer Deposits

The occurrence of rich placer deposits of gold in the Ghana coast and the absolute absence of source rock in the region is an amazing fact.
The gold bearing veins are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the two continents lay side by side.

5) Distribution of Fossils

When identical species of plants and animals adapted to living on land or in fresh water are found on either side of the marine barriers, a problem arises regarding accounting for such distribution. The observations that Lemurs occur in India, Madagascar and Africa led some to consider a contiguous landmass “Lemuria” linking these three landmasses. Mesosaurus was a small reptile adapted to shallow brackish water. The skeletons of these are found only in two localities : the Southern Cape province of South Africa and Iraver formations of Brazil. The two localities presently are 4,800 km apart with an ocean in between them.

Edit :- As commented by Malcolm Sargeant , " We can nowadays measure the movement of the continents using enhanced GPS to the nearest cm and also using high precision radar from orbit to within a mm."

Thank you Malcolm for that wonderful piece of information.

Is the continental drift real?

Why was Sriharikota chosen by ISRO as the launching site of PSLV?

Why was Sriharikota chosen by ISRO as the launching site of PSLV?

Answer by Shubham Bansal:

The Sriharikota range is the second-best located spaceport in the world, next to the Kennedy space centre in the U.S.

                                  – Mr. Vijayasarathi, Group Director, MSA, SHAR


1. Location, Location & Location:

  • Located nearer to the equator, Sriharikota is the ideal launch site for geostationary satellites.

  • Sriharikota is ideal for eastward launches. SHAR’s location on the east coast ensures that it gains an additional velocity of 0.4 km/s due to Earth’s rotation to easily launch rockets. Most satellites are launched eastward. Click & search for eastward to know "Why are most satellites launched eastward?"
  • There is also a proposal for a new launch pad at  Kulaseka­ra­pa­ttinam in 2013 which is ideal for southward launches. (refer: ISRO News)

2. Accessibility:

  • Their equipments are huge and travel from across the world. For this very reason, It must be accessible by all means of transport; Land, Air, Water.
  • At the same time, The site is prone for accidents. So, it should be remote away from inhabitants.
  • Being a coastal islandish area with no habitation proves advantageous for Sriharikota because it is on National Highway (NH-5), 20 KM away from nearest Railway Station, and 70 KM (Chennai) from nearest International Ports by air & ships. Can you ask for more?

On the left:
Red dot – Railway Station, Yellow line – NH 5

3. Coastal Site:

  • You never know what falls off from a flying object. The maximum distance of impact from the launch site can be upto 6,500 kms. See the map towards the east of Sriharikota. Need I stress more?

4. Climate:

  • See the chart below? The red horizontal line signifies the temperatures registered in Sriharikota across the year. The blue vertical line represents the rainfall in mm. Heavy rains come only in October and November allowing them to test outdoor for 10 months in an year. There's no bad day than a rain day and Sriharikota offers you optimal rainfall.

It is no accident that Sriharikota is chosen. Sriharikota is not chosen among few options. It is THE OPTION for ISRO. Sriharikota silently played & playing it's role in making India proud ever since the "Rohini-125" sounding rocket was launched in 1971 helping 35/43 successful launches as of June, 2014.

Edit: Special thanks to Jai Parimi for restructuring the answer wholly in such a great way. Inspiration!

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Why was Sriharikota chosen by ISRO as the launching site of PSLV?