IR : What-are-the-major-world-geopolitical-faultlines -1
Answer by Balaji Viswanathan:
has already provided a great answer. There are a few more:
The below maps from Vox show how neatly Ukraine is divided between the east and west – politically, ethnically and linguistically. This will be a source of further mischief from Russia as the bear will covet the blue east. This could be a major source of trouble in Europe.
The eastern side of Pakistan – Punjab and Sindh dominate most of politics, economy and military. However, the western side is in a state of unrest as they are improperly integrated. It is much more tribal and quite sparsely populated. Many of the tribes in FATA and NWFP seem more bonded with the Pushtoo brothers on the side of Afghanistan. The recent bombing in Wagah is yet another indication of the potential for terrorism coming from the west of this line. This line could determine the peace of south Asia.
Horn of Africa fault line
The Somali people in the horn of Africa are spread over a wide region that includes present day Ethiopia, Kenya and Somaliland, besides Somalia. The colonial powers determined the borders and split the tribes. This has been a source of tension for decades. Ethiopia went through a civil war in Ogaden [the region where most Somalis are present] and Somalia itself went through plenty of trouble. This region is very crucial for global shipping lines.
Nigeria's fault line
In the past few years, Boko Haram terrorism group in Nigeria has been gradually expanding from the extreme northeast of the country. The casaulties have been exponentially rising.
Here are the various ethnic groups that make up the Middle East. Do you see a big blob of red in the middle? Those are the Kurds. These are only the major ethnicity that doesn't have a nation of their own. Until they get theirs there will be a big trouble.
Both India and China claim the yellow regions in the map below. The dark red line is the current border. Although the nature of Himalayas and Tibetan pleateau will make a full scale war unlikely, this is the source of major tension between the Asian rivals.